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Chilean-German researchers show impressive effects on the marine ecosystem. Since several decades, plastics dominate many product and packaging sectors. Unfortunately, more and more of these very durable products are polluting our oceans.

The immune system protects the human body against pathogens thus keeping it healthy. To achieve this, however, immune cells must Kostenlose Dating-Seiten Hier erfahren Sie wie das funktioniert able to recognise intruders and to classify them as dangerous or harmless.

These tasks are shared among different cell types: If an immune cell recognises foreign matter, it can present it to another immune cell. Both cells form a characteristic ring-shaped structure at their contact point, the immunological synapse, through which they exchange information. If all the components of the synapse are correctly positioned, activation of the immune cell will result.

Researchers of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research HZI and the Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology BRICSin collaboration with researchers at the University of Oxford UKhave now simulated the dynamic arrangement of these components using computer models and have subsequently been able to make inferences on the mechanisms involved in the formation of synapses. Today, the researchers have published their results in the scientific journal Cell Reports.

T-cells red and B-cells blue form immunological synapses at their contact point green. Different immune cells are therefore constantly in search of foreign molecules indicating the presence of any pathogen which needs to be destroyed. If one of these cells meets a foreign body, it will integrate parts from it — called antigens — onto its own cell surface and present these to other immune cells: This cell type is responsible for classifying the presented parts as dangerous or harmless and, if necessary, initiating a response against them.

To do this, T-cells make contact with the antigen-presenting immune cells and read information from their surface. Both cells form a ring-shaped structure made of different proteins at the point of contact between the cells — termed immunological synapse — over which they can exchange information.

At the end of this process the T-cell is Dating profile usernames for guys Rahmentrommeln activated or remains inactive. The T-cell makes contact with the antigen-presenting cell by means of specialized adhesion molecules which initially are randomly distributed over the cell surface. The loose bond formed between the two cell surfaces allows for the binding of T-cell receptors to the presented antigen.

Where immunological synapses are correctly formed, the receptor molecules are concentrated around a central point whereas the other surface proteins arrange themselves into two rings around this central area. Microscope image shows an immunological synapse. This, however, could not be proved for the other molecules.

Dustin to simulate the formation of synapses using computer models. In these models, they simulated different conditions and influencing factors and were able to demonstrate that the different molecules exert an influence on each other in terms of their arrangement although they do not interact directly.

Computer simulation of an immunological synapse with its characteristic ring-shaped structure. The antigen receptors are small and are repelled by the large adhesion molecules.

They organise themselves in small clusters which are transported by actin in the direction of the centre of the synapse. The Top free dating scripts best single player rpg pc games 2013 adhesion molecules accumulate around them in an outer ring.

The ring pattern is thus a result of mechanical forces in the cell membrane which sorts the molecules in the synapse according to their size. From a medical point of view, these results are of particular significance for the area of treatment of defective T-cell activity.

In this way, activation of T-cells may be induced or slowed down, which could be used for improved management of acute or chronic infections, Top free dating scripts best single player rpg pc games 2013 results from vaccination or prevention of autoimmune diseases. Anastasios Siokis, Philippe A.

Robert, Philippos Demetriou, Michael L. Cell Reports,DOI: HZI researchers have investigated the formation of immunological synapses over which immune cells exchange information The immune system protects the human body against Top free dating scripts best single player rpg pc games 2013 thus keeping it healthy.

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