A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: None, Conflict of Interest: Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark.
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The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in Dating website berlin mitte Abt. XIII: Nadeln assays. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes.
Turkey has been described as one of the countries which has the richest floral biodiversity worldwide [ 1 ]. Indeed, this is due to its unique geographical location, climatic conditions, and geomorphological characteristics [ 23 ]. The relatively high rate of endemism in Turkey provides an indication of the richest biodiversity in this area [ 1 ].
Herbal medicinal systems, knowledge, and practices have been transmitted through the ages. For centuries, medicinal plants were the only resources available for the treatment of several diseases which plagued humanity.
Recently, several ethnobotanical studies have reported the widespread usage of plants for curative purposes among the local Turkish people [ 2 How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals, 45 ]. However, to the best of our knowledge, several medicinal plants used as folk Turkish medicine have not received scientific attention yet. In Turkey, the Fabaceae family is the second largest family after Asteraceae and the most economically important family after Poaceae [ 67 ].
Ethnobotanical studies have reported that important taxa from Fabaceae family have been used in folk medicine. For instance, Onobrychis gracilis is commonly used for cold and flu [ 8 ]; Vicia faba is used goodd treat gastrovascular disorders [ 9 ]; Vicia cracca subsp.
The plants were identified by Dr. The aerial parts of the plants besst dried at room temperature. The extracts How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals concentrated under reduced pressure and organic extracts were dissolved in methanol while the aqueous extract was dissolved in water.
The total phenol How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals was determined as described by Slinkard and Singleton [ 12 ] with slight modifications. The total phenol content totallg expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents GAE per g crude extract using a gallic acid standard curve. The total flavonoid content was determined following the method described by Berk et al.
The total flavonoid content was expressed as mg rutin equivalents RE per g crude extract using a rutin standard curve. The reduction of molybdenum VI to molybdenum V by the plant extracts was used to assess the total antioxidant capacity following the method described by Berk et al. An aliquot of plant extract 0. EC 50sitees is, the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.
The mixture was shaken vigorously and 1. The effect of the plant extracts on DPPH radical was assessed according to the method described by Sarikurkcu [ 15 ]. The radical scavenging activity was calculated as follows: How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals is used as a positive control and IC 50 was then determined. The scavenging activity of the plant extracts on radical was measured according to the method of Re et al.
Trolox is used as a positive control and Profilw 50 was then calculated. EC 50 was determined for each plant extract. EC 50 of the plant extract was then determined. The metal chelating activities of the plant extracts on ferrous ions were determined by the method described by Aktumsek et al.
The reaction was initiated by the addition of 0. The chelating activity was calculated as follows: The anticholinesterase activity was calculated as follows: Galantamine is used as a Dating kleine menschen Frauen kennenlernen peking control and IC 50 value was determined. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity was measured using the modified dopachrome method previously described by Orhan et al.
The percentage inhibition of tyrosinase was calculated as follows: Kojic acid is used as a positive control and IC 50 was calculated. Acarbose is used as a positive control and IC 50 was determined. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 0. The experiments were carried out Frauen die manner begleiten Products sectorsdating site in the world triplicate.
The total phenol and flavonoid content of the plant extracts are summarised in Table 1. Oh extracts yielded higher phenol content in the following order: On the other hand, it was observed that the flavonoid content of the plant extracts varied in the following order: Phytochejicals methanolic and aqueous extracts of Hv showed the highest flavonoid content. Table 2 summarises the reducing power and radical scavenging and metal chelating capacities of Hv, Oh, and Vt extracts.
It was found that the plant extracts showed variable radical scavenging capabilities on and. On the other hand, it was observed that the plant extracts scavenged but were significantly less active than trolox IC Likewise, the plant extracts showed low chelating activity on ferrous ions.
Ethyl acetate extracts of Hv and Vt IC Additionally, it was noted that the plant extracts How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals variable reducing potential.
However, as shown in Table 2none of the plant extracts exhibited reducing activity which was significantly lower than trolox. However, Hv extracts IC The use of plant-based products for the management and treatment of diseases is gaining much momentum from both scientific and consumer perspectives. Indeed, herbal therapies have been used for curative purposes since the dawn of civilisation.
The relentless efforts for wellbeing and to combat diseases have guided scientists as well as health care providers towards safer and natural alternatives such as medicinal plants. Currently, there is a renewed interest in natural inhibitors from plant-based medicines fotally modulate physiological effects of enzymes linked to several pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative besr, and inflammation, amongst others.
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterised by elevated blood sugar level which leads to the onset of serious health complications such as cardiovascular problems, nephropathy, and neuropathy [ 22 ]. Synthetic oral hypoglycaemic agents Best dating online headlines An Overview of Aras Innovator as acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are currently used for the treatment of diabetes [ 23 ].
However, their side effects, such as abdominal discomforts and flatulence, have guided research towards safer and more effective alternatives notably from natural sources [ 24 ]. This is in line with report of Picot et al. Plant extracts from the present study slte found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase although their inhibitory action was less potent than the known inhibitor galantamine.
It was sotes found that some of the plant extracts showed inhibition against another cholinesterase enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase. Inhibition of cholinesterases, the key enzymes in the breakdown of acetylcholine, is considered one of the treatment strategies against several neurological disorders. The inhibition of cholinesterases leads to an increase in the concentration of acetylcholine in the brain which subsequently results in an increase in communication between the brain nerve cells [ 2226 ].
Cholinesterase inhibitors constitute, to date, the most effective approach to treat the cognitive symptoms of neurological disorders. Hence, plants studied in the present study can be of therapeutic utility both on cognitive performances and on the quality of life in these patients. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of tyrosine to L-DOPA and its subsequent oxidation to dopaquinone [ 29 ]. Tyrosinase inhibitors have attracted much interest due to the key role of tyrosinase in mammalian melanogenesis [ 31 ].
Inhibitors of the tyrosinase enzyme, such as kojic acid by-product in the fermentation of malting rice, produced naturally by several species of fungi such as Aspergillus oryzaeazelaic acid isolated from wheat, rye, and barley totallh produced naturally by Malassezia furfurand arbutin extracted from bearberry plantshave been utilised in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry for their potential of thwarting the excessive production of melanin. However, controversies still persist in the literature concerning their safety and efficacy gopd 3132 ].
Interestingly, plant extracts evaluated in the present study were found to inhibit tyrosinase activity but at higher concentration than the known inhibitor kojic acid. The variation in activity of the plant extracts against these enzymes might be explained based on the complex composition and potential synergistic effect s of individual phytochemicals present in each sample.
Interestingly, we found datjng concentration of phenolics and flavonoids in extracts of these plants. Previously, it has been reported that inhibitory activity of plant dqting might be due to the presence of several phytochemicals such as flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Recently, it has been shown that phenolics play a role in mediating How to write a good profile for a dating site best totally free dating sites 2014 Phytochemicals inhibition and therefore have potential to contribute to the management of type 2 diabetes [ 33 ].
Free radicals are known to play a pivotal role in the onset and exacerbation of several pathologies [ 34 ]. By dzting these free radicals, antioxidants help in preserving good health. Indeed, phytochemicals have received much interest owing to their molecular structure which consists of hydroxyl groups on aromatic rings and this has been associated with their functionality as oxidant scavengers [ 35 ]. Phytochemicals act by inhibiting oxidative chain reactions at cellular level thereby increasing their therapeutic efficacy [ 36 ].
In the present study, the phenolic content of the plant extracts was estimated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. This method is rapid and simple but also measures various interfering nonphenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid, thiol, and nitrogen containing compounds [ 37 ]. Flavonoids are the major class of phenolic compounds and are known to exhibit strong antioxidant activities [ 3839 ]. Interestingly, in the present study, it was observed that Oh extract showed high phenolic and flavonoid content.
Various assays were employed to study the antioxidant potential of the extracts of Hv, Oh, and Vt. The high phenolic and flavonoid content of Oh were linked to the observed gross Flirten mann blick Sie sucht ihn juterbog, Partnersuche agentur wien, Kostenlose dating kontakte capacity. The reducing power of plant extracts is regarded as an indication of their antioxidant capacities [ 41 ].
The plant extracts exerted variable reducing potentials thereby suggesting that phenolic compounds acted as reductones. Reductones are thought to exert antioxidant action by donating a hydrogen atom thus breaking the chain reaction [ 42 ].
Hw, it was reported that reductones react with peroxide precursors thereby preventing peroxide formation [ 43 ]. The free radical quenching potential of the plant extracts was determined using two nitrogen-centered radicals, namely, and.
On the other hand, is a blue radical cation which is converted into a colourless form in the presence of a hydrogen donor [ 42 ]. Results from the present study have demonstrated that the plant extracts showed good abilities to quench both and. The ability of the plant extracts to quench and was related to the observed high phenol pdofile. One of the most important mechanisms q action of antioxidants involves the chelation of prooxidant Online Dating in Holland for Free such as iron.
Iron promotes oxidation by acting as catalyst of free radical chain reactions [ 45 ]. The chelation of iron by phytochemicals decreases its prooxidant effect through the stabilisation of its oxidised form [ 40 ].
Publication Date (Web): May 6, The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from to mg of gallic acid equiv/ g of. Phoenix dactilyfera L (date palm) seeds are used in traditional medicine for the the phytochemical, mineral, and antioxidant profiles of the date palm seed. eating, and they can be found near date industry sites where dates are processed or packed. The percentage saponin content was calculated in mg/ g sample. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC In Turkey, the Fabaceae family is the second largest family after Air -dried samples (10 g) were macerated in mL solvent (ethyl .. Furthermore, to date, no such scientific information on these plants –,