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At PHELIX, scientists from around the world have the unique opportunity to conduct experiments that combine laser beams and ion beams produced in the existing accelerator facility. This makes it possible to study extreme states of matter, such as those that occur in stars or inside large planets. It can deliver laser pulses with energies of up to 1, joules and laser pulses with a power of up to half a petawatt.
The output power is quintillion times billions of billion times greater than that of a laser pointer or a laser in a CD player.
PHELIX is so large that it takes up an entire building the size of a two-story house with a clean-room atmosphere inside. The laser beam, which has a diameter of 30 cm, is guided to the site of the experiment using special mirrors and focused on a point.
A laser pulse can be generated only about every 90 minutes. The amount of beam time requested Dating site profile headlines examples dusseldorf menschen kennenlernen exceeds what can be offered. For this reason, there is an established selection procedure to allow research groups to carry out their experiments at PHELIX.
Following the calls to submit proposals for experiments, these proposals are examined by an international committee, and experiments are then Meg Ryan and John Mellencamp dating again people Pinterest Meg ryan, People and Dating again based on scientific relevance and feasibility.
In this state, the electron shell of atoms is completely or partially separated from the atomic nuclei. This is only possible under extreme conditions and above all at high temperatures of the sort found in stars or inside large planets such as Jupiter.
In our everyday lives, we encounter less energetic types of plasma, such as a candle Dating site profile headlines examples dusseldorf menschen kennenlernen or a bolt of lightning during a thunderstorm. In their experiments, the researchers expose samples of matter to radiation. These samples can be heated up with the laser beam to such a degree that a plasma forms. Just fractions of a second later, they can be bombarded with ions. An analysis of the resulting reactions makes it possible to study the properties of the plasma.
The possibility of using the laser beam to accelerate ions and then transfer them to stationary conventional accelerator structures is also being studied.
This combined use of the laser and ion accelerator is unique and enables the generation of very brief ion pulses with high particle counts. Further improvements are contemplated for the future, especially for use at the FAIR accelerator facility: In the long term, researchers are aiming to use ion acceleration with the laser to achieve different sorts of ions, higher energies and greater intensities.
An increase in the pulse repetition rate of 100 free online dating sites in france laser is also planned.
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