Lifelong learning is therefore important for individuals as well as for society and is an essential prerequisite for integration into work and life. In the scientific discussion, lifelong learning strategies using flexible, accessible, attractive methods and appropriate technologies are seen as promising to provide individuals and organizations with skills that demonstrate the diversity of people's characteristics through targeted methodologies and initiatives promoting everything in further education, for the individual benefit and for the benefit of the organization. In the new learning world, which is characterized by digitization, people are offered the opportunity to develop their potentials individually. Digital technologies should be used in all processes of lifelong learning, education, training, and in particular within work.
An international team of researchers headed by DESY scientists has used a powerful X-ray laser to gain insights into the structure of different amyloid samples. The X-ray scattering from amyloid fibrils give patterns somewhat similar to those obtained by Rosalind Franklin from DNA inwhich led to the discovery of the well-known structure, the double helix.
With such powerful X-ray beams any extraneous material can overwhelm the signal from the invisibly small fibril sample. Ultrathin carbon film — graphene — solved this problem to allow extremely sensitive patterns to be recorded. This marks an important step towards studying individual molecules using X-ray lasers, a goal that structural biologists have long been pursuing.
The scientists present their new technique in the journal Nature Communications. On the ultra-thin, extremely regular layer Gay dating website japan Aras Innovator 11: A Demonstration of Visual Collaboration (12 Minutes) graphene, the fibrils align themselves in parallel in large Single events fulda Frauen dating kostenlos.
While amyloids are believed to play a major role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, recently more and more functional amyloid forms have been identified. Scientists are trying to determine the spatial structure of amyloids as accurately as possible, so as to use this information in order to find out more about how the protein fibrils function: Individual amyloid fibrils are only a few nanometres thick and therefore generally too small to produce a measurable signal when exposed Single events fulda Frauen dating kostenlos X-rays.
For this reason, the usual approach is to line up millions of these fibrils parallel to each other, and bundling them so that event signals add up.
However, this means the diffraction patterns are produced by the entire ensemble, and information about structural differences between the individual fibrils is lost. In order to gain access to structure information of such heterogeneous samples in the future, the team opted for a new experimental approach.
Instead of suspending the individual amyloids in a carrier fluid like a water jet the scientists placed it on an ultrathin solid carrier made of graphene, in which carbon atoms are arranged in a hexagonal pattern rather like an atomic honeycomb.
For another thing, its regular structure makes sure the protein fibrils all align in the same direction — at least in larger domains. The diffraction patterns of iSngle fibrils overlap and reinforce one another, much like in a crystal, but there is virtually no disruptive background scattering as in the case of a carrier fluid.
This method allows diffraction patterns to be obtained from fewer than 50 amyloid fibrils, so that the structural differences emerge more clearly. In some regards, fibrils fit between the other two: The scientists tested their method on samples of the tobacco mosaic Single events fulda Frauen dating kostenlos, dqting first examined by Rosalind Franklin, and which forms filaments of a structure that is now known in great detail.
The test did in fact provide structural data about the virus with an accuracy Singgle 0. The examination of distinctly smaller amyloid How to online dating book Forschungen in der Ramses-Stadt made SSingle endorphin as well as amyloid fibrils made of the hormone bombesin, which is involved among other things in certain types of cancer, also provided some structural information, with an accuracy of Single events fulda Frauen dating kostenlos.
100 free norway dating site the data was insufficient for calculating the complete structure, the study shows great promise for structural retrieval when more data becomes available, and opens up a new path for the structural analysis of amyloids using X-ray koshenlos. This research is also featured at the SLAC website. DESY in the press.