The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in , when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4, years of Imperial rule. The Qing dynasty, also known as the Manchu dynasty , ruled from — The Republic had experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding which included being dominated by elements as disparate as warlord generals and foreign powers. In , the Republic was nominally unified under the Kuomintang KMT —Chinese Nationalist Party—after the Northern Expedition , and was in the early stages of industrialization and modernization when it was caught in the conflicts among the Kuomintang government, the Communist Party of China , founded , which was converted into a nationalist party; local warlords , and the Empire of Japan. This state considered itself to be the continuing sole legitimate ruler of all of China, referring to the communist government or "regime" as illegitimate, a so-called "People's Republic of China" declared in Beijing Peking by Mao Zedong in , as "mainland China", "Communist China, or "Red China".
The Republic of Chinain the period up towas a sovereign state in East Asia that occupied the territories of modern Chinaand for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan. It was founded inafter the Qing dynastythe last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-senserved only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikaiformer leader of the Beiyang Army.
His party, then led by Song Jiaorenwon the parliamentary election held in December Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the government in Beijing.
Between late and earlyYuan tried to reinstate the monarchybefore abdicating after popular unrest. After Yuan's death inmembers of cliques in the former Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each Free dating sites in tanzania. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty.
The economy of the north, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between and The central government was overthrown in and Chiang established a new nationalist government in Nanjing. There was industrialization and modernizationFlirten mann blick Sie sucht ihn juterbog, Partnersuche agentur wien, Kostenlose dating kontakte also conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CPC, remnant warlords, and the Empire of Japan.
Nation-building took a backseat to war with Japan when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in that turned into a full-scale invasion.
After the unconditional surrender of Japan infighting quickly resumed between the KMT and the CPCwith both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the ongoing friction between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Inthe Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the Organic Law of as the country's fundamental law. Inthe Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of Chinaoverthrowing the Nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, which retreated to Taiwan, and relocated its capital from Nanjing to Taipei. A republic was formally established on 1 January following the Xinhai Revolutionwhich itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 Octobersuccessfully overthrowing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China.
Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism —28Japanese invasion —45and a full-scale civil war Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949)with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade —37when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang KMT under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship.
Inafter over two thousand years of imperial rulea republic was established to replace the monarchy. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until The establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) On 29 DecemberSun Yat-Sen was elected president by the Nanjing assembly with representatives from seventeen provinces.
On 1 Januaryhe Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) officially inaugurated and pledged "to overthrow the despotic government led by the Manchuconsolidate the Republic of China and plan for the welfare of the people". Sun, however, lacked the Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) military strength to defeat the Qing government by force.
As a compromise, the new republic negotiated with the commander of the Beiyang ArmyYuan Shikaiwith the promise of presidency in the republic if he was to remove the Qing emperor force.
Yuan agreed to the deal, and the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty, Puyiwas forced to abdicate inand Yuan was officially elected president of the ROC in He soon dissolved the ruling Kuomintang KMT party, banned "secret organizations" which implicitly included the KMTand ignored the provisional constitution. An attempt at a democratic election in ended with the assassination of the elected candidate by a man recruited by Yuan.
Ultimately, Yuan declared himself Emperor of China in Many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Increasingly unpopular and deserted by his supporters, Yuan gave Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) being Emperor in and died of natural causes shortly after. China declined into a period of warlordism. Sun, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province in the south with the help of warlords in andand set up successive rival governments to the Beiyang government in Beijing; he re-established the KMT in October Sun's dream was to unify China by launching an expedition to the north.
However, he lacked military support and funding to make it a reality. Meanwhile, the Beiyang government struggled to Free black singles dating site Zahlungsarten on to power, and an open and wide-ranging debate evolved regarding how China should confront the West. Ina student protest against the government's weak response to the Treaty of Versaillesconsidered unfair by Chinese intellectuals, led to the May Fourth movement.
These demonstrations were aimed at spreading Western influence to replace Chinese culture. It is also in this intellectual climate that the influence of Marxism spread and became more popular. It eventually led to the founding of the Communist Party of China in InChiang led the Northern Expedition through China with the intention of defeating the Beiyang warlords and unifying the country.
Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communists ; however, he soon dismissed his Soviet advisers. He was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the KMT also known as the Chinese Nationalists and take over control. At the same time, other violent conflicts were taking place in China; in the South, where the Communists had superior numbers, Nationalist supporters were being massacred. Chiang Kai-shek pushed the Communists into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and established a government with Nanking as its capital in Among other things, it created at that time the Academia Sinicathe Central Bank of Chinaand other agencies.
InChina sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games. Laws were passed and campaigns mounted to promote the rights of women. The ease and speed of communication also allowed a focus on social problems, including those of the villages. The Rural Reconstruction Movement was one of many which took advantage of the new freedom to raise social consciousness.
Historians such as Edmund Fung argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible. The nation was at war and divided between Communists and Nationalists. Corruption within the government and lack of direction also prevented any significant reform from taking place.
Chiang realized the lack of real work being done within his administration and told the State Council: Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) the central government was nominally in control of the entire country during this period, large areas of China remained under the semi-autonomous rule of local warlords, provincial military leaders or warlord coalitions.
Nationalist rule was strongest in the eastern regions around the capital Nanjing, but regional militarists such as Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan retained considerable local authority. The Central Plains War inthe Japanese aggression in and the Red Army's Long March in led to more power for the central government, but there continued to be foot-dragging and even outright defiance, as in the Fujian Rebellion of — Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese desires on China.
Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in September and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo in The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Kuomintang economy. The League of Nationsestablished at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face of the Japanese defiance.
The Japanese began to push from south of the Great Wall into northern China and the coastal provinces. Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but anger was also directed against Chiang and the Nanking government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders. The importance of "internal unity before external danger" was forcefully brought home in Decemberwhen Chiang Kai-shekin an event now known as the Xi'an Incidentwas kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang and forced to ally with Free dating sites in tanzania Communists against the Japanese in the Second Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) United Front against Japan.
This skirmish led to open, though undeclared, warfare between China and Japan. Shanghai fell after a three-month battle during which Japan suffered extensive casualties, both in its army and navy. The capital of Nanking fell in December It was followed by an orgy of mass murders and rapes known as the Nanking Massacre.
The national capital was briefly at Wuhanthen removed in an epic retreat Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) ChongqingChristlicher partnervermittlung dienst 100 free dating site in germany seat of government until In the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime was set up with its capital in Nanking, proclaiming itself the legitimate "Republic of China" in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek's government, though its claims were significantly hampered due to its nature as a Japanese puppet state controlling limited amounts of territory, along with its subsequent defeat at the end of the war.
After conflicts between the Kuomintang and Communists became more frequent in the areas not under Japanese control. The entrance of the United States into the Pacific War after changed the nature of their relationship.
The Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities presented themselves through mass organizations, administrative reforms and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants and the spread of their organizational network, while the Kuomintang attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence.
Meanwhile, northern China was infiltrated politically by Japanese politicians in Manchukuo using facilities such as Wei Huang Gong. Inthe Republic of China emerged from the war nominally a great military Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) but actually a nation economically prostrate and on the verge of all-out civil war. The economy deteriorated, sapped by the military demands of foreign war and internal strife, by spiraling inflation and by Nationalist profiteering, speculation and hoarding.
Starvation came in the wake of the war, and millions were rendered homeless by floods and the unsettled conditions in many parts of the country. The situation was further complicated by an Allied agreement at the Yalta Conference in February that brought Soviet troops into Manchuria to hasten the termination of war against Japan.
Although the Chinese had not been present at Yalta, they had been consulted and had agreed to have the Soviets enter the war in Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) belief Best free dating site in usa Republic of China era (1912 1949) the Soviet Union would deal only with the Kuomintang government.
After the end of the war in Augustthe Nationalist Government moved back to Nanjing. The Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreement allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese.
The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army.
The problems of rehabilitating the formerly Japanese-occupied areas and of reconstructing the nation from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering.
As an ally, it embarked in late on a program of massive military and financial aid to the hard-pressed Nationalist Government. In Januaryboth the United States and the United Kingdom led the way in revising their unequal treaties with China from the past. The wartime policy of the United States was initially to help China become a strong ally and a stabilizing force in postwar East Asia. As the conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communists intensified, however, the United States sought unsuccessfully to reconcile the rival forces for a more effective anti-Japanese war effort.
Following the Surrender of Japanthe administration of Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October To further this end, on 30 September the 1st Marine Division arrived in China, charged with security in the areas of the Shandong Peninsula and the eastern Hebei Province.
Through the mediating influence of the United States a military truce was arranged in Januarybut battles between the Kuomintang and Communists soon resumed. Public opinion of the administrative incompetence of the Nationalist government was escalated and incited by the Communists in the nationwide student protest against mishandling of the Shen Chong rape case in early and another national protest against monetary reforms later that year. Realizing that no American efforts short of large-scale armed intervention could stop the coming war, the United States withdrew the American missionheaded by Gen.
Marshallin early The Chinese Civil War became more widespread; battles raged not only for territories but also for the allegiance of cross-sections of the population. The United States aided the Nationalists with massive economic loans and weapons but no combat support. Belatedly, the Republic of China government sought to enlist popular support through internal reforms. The effort was in vain, however, because of rampant government corruption and the accompanying political and economic chaos.
By late the Kuomintang position was bleak. The demoralized and undisciplined National Revolutionary Army proved to be no match for the motivated and disciplined Communist People's Liberation Armyearlier known as the Red Army.